Each of the properties on the maintenance table forms the basis of a business. While a property is typically directed by a steward or castellan, allowing the owning character to go out adventuring, the profits and losses are better managed if the character sticks around to direct things.
Where a structure includes or implies additional buildings, like the area around a palace or the boarding house for a shop’s workers, these costs are included in the building’s construction and maintenance cost.

Monthly Bookkeeping

Every month, a business checks for losses or profits and pays its expenses, referring to the two tables below. To check for losses and profits, roll d100 and add the number of downtime days the owning character or characters have contributed to the hands-on running of the business (maximum of 30 days total among all contributors).
If the roll result generates a maintenance cost (half, full, or one-and-a-half), this must be paid out of the owners' pocket. Failure to pay immediately creates a "debt" for the unpaid portion. Debts not paid immediately can sometimes be wiped out or reduced by exchanging favors or services to whatever source or supplier owns the debt. Each debt still existing at the time of the next month’s losses and profits roll imposes a -10 penalty to the roll. Failure to pay off a specific debt within 12 months typically ends the business; properties and inventories are seized and sold at auction (at half the value of the original investment), debts are paid from that amount, and the remainder reverts to the owner.
If the roll generates a profit, this accrues immediately to the owner(s), although characters would be wise to keep enough of the profits on hand to cover losses made in future months.

d100+days Result
01-20 You must pay one and a half times the business’ maintenance cost for the month.
21-30 You must pay the business’ full maintenance cost for the month.
31-40 You must pay half the business’ maintenance cost for the month. Profits cover the other half.
41-60 The business covers its own maintenance cost for the month.
61-80 The business covers its own maintenance cost for the month. It earns a profit of one-quarter the maintenance cost.
81-90 The business covers its own maintenance cost for the month. It earns a profit of one-half the maintenance cost.
91+ The business covers its own maintenance cost for the month. It earns a profit of three-quarters the maintenance cost.

Business Costs

Private land to build on can be purchased for 100 gp to 5,000 gp, or even higher. Once land is acquired, a property needs significant wealth and time to build. Construction may continue without direct oversight by the owner, but each “day” of construction in her absence requires the passage of 4 actual days.
If the opportunity presents itself, an available property can be purchased for an amount equal to its construction cost. If a property is in a run-down state, the Dungeon Master will assign a percentage of ruin, usually 25%, 50%, or 75%. Repairing the property requires the equivalent percentage of the property’s construction cost and construction time. A property purchased in a run-down state will have its priced reduced by the same percentage to compensate.
Each property is staffed by a number of hirelings, including a steward who can take charge of almost everything, freeing up the owner to go adventuring. Hirelings’ wages are included in the property’s maintenance cost. Garrison members are skilled hirelings trained and equipped to fight; they use the guard statistics. For every full 10 members of a garrison, replace one guard with a veteran.

Feudal Enterprises

Sometimes property is acquired as part of a feudal system. Likely examples include a noble estate, fortified tower, outpost, fort, keep, small castle, large castle, or palace. While these enterprises can be built privately, they more often represent a grant of land and title from a powerful sovereign.
Grants of this nature typically come with a noble title. Sometimes the grant is for land and permission to build on it, but more often it includes lordship over an existing estate or fortification. In the latter case, no construction costs or times are required for the owner to take up residence, but some spring cleaning might be in order. Sometimes a sovereign will assign title to a property that has been overrun by orcs or trolls, on condition that the new lord or lady of the land can secure it successfully.
Although these properties use the standard rules for businesses, they are non-commercial in nature. They earn income in the form of taxes collected from the surrounding peasantry and merchant class. They pay expenses in the form of upkeep for soldiers, maintenance and security for the surrounding land, and taxes tendered to higher-ranked nobles or royalty.
In the case of a failed “business” for unpaid debts in the feudal system, where there has been no up-front purchase of the property by the “owner,” the whole enterprise simply reverts to the possession of the sovereign. The original grantor will pay the outstanding debts and then assign a worthier trustee to manage things the future. If the owner has invested construction costs, these might be lost or reimbursed on the whim of the sovereign, or other things of value might be given instead. Losing a business like this almost always means the character is stripped of any accompanying noble title.

Building & Maintenance Cost

Property Construction Cost Construction Time Maintenance Cost Garrison Strength Skilled Hirelings Untrained Hirelings
Abbey 50,000 gp 400 days 600 gp - 5 25
Cottage 50 gp 10 days 2 gp - - -
Farm 100 gp 30 days 15 gp - 1 2
Guildhall, town or city 5,000 gp 60 days 150 gp - 5 3
Inn, rural roadside 400 gp 30 days 300 gp 4 1 10
Inn, town or city 800 gp 40 days 150 gp - 1 5
Keep or castle 50,000 gp 400 days 3,000 gp 45 5 50
Lodge, hunting 500 gp 20 days 15 gp - 1 -
Noble estate with manor 25,000 gp 300 days 300 gp 2 1 15
Outpost or fort 15,000 gp 100 days 1,500 gp 18 2 40
Palace or large castle 500,000 gp 1,200 days 12,000 gp 180 20 100
Shack 10 gp 3 days 0 gp - - -
Shop 2,000 gp 25 days 60 gp - 1 -
Temple, large 50,000 gp 400 days 750 gp 4 4 10
Temple, small 1,000 gp 25 days 30 gp - 2 -
Tower, fortified 15,000 gp 100 days 750 gp 8 2 -
Trading post 5,000 gp 60 days 300 gp - 4 2



This building complex houses members of a religious order. It typically exists in a remote setting and has barracks, gardens, and other facilities sufficient to support several dozen monks, mystics, or other residents.


This building resembles a large family dwelling. It has two floors and about seven separate rooms. It can house a family of up to 10, or some other close-knit group of people, so long as bedrooms are shared.


A farm includes a farmhouse, like a cottage, and several fields to cultivate. It also has a barn, warehouse, or grain silo for housing livestock or storing crops.

Guildhall, Town or City

This nice building is several stories tall. It contains offices, operational facilities (like an adjacent warehouse or workhouse), accounting facilities, a secure vault for wealth and business records, small-but-comfortable rooms for visiting guildmembers, and a variety of other things. The ornamentation of a guildhall particularly reflects the success and prosperity of the guild.

Inn, Rural Roadside

A roadside inn is an all-encompassing stop-off point for travelers. It includes a stable for horses, a bevy of cheap rooms, a small but functional kitchen, and a small assortment of drinks available at the bar.

Inn, Town or City

This inn serves a higher fare than a roadside inn. It offers no stabling but does provide a wide array of food and beverage qualities, as well as rooms in various qualities. Services and accommodations are more expensive not just for their quality, but also because of their proximity to a population center.

Keep or Castle

This stone building or set of buildings is constructed for security and to project military power over the surrounding countryside. It is probably built on a high point, perhaps with natural barriers protecting it, and commonly boasts a high curtain wall capable of repelling a siege.

Lodge, Hunting

This building is strategically located in useful hunting grounds. It has bare accommodations for a half-dozen hunters, including living facilities. It also provides the tools and room necessary to butcher and preserve meat, process hides, and perform other tasks common to hunting.

Noble Estate with Manor.

A noble estate serves much of the same function as a keep or castle, but without the military fortification. In settled lands, far from the frontier, a noble estate is

Outpost or Fort

This construction resembles a primitive castle, built mostly of wood with walls made of log palisades. It otherwise includes military lodgings and other logistical facilities to serve the same functions. A fort or outpost is often a precursor to a castle, built to be operational while a real castle is constructed nearby, or simply upgraded bit-by-bit until it turns into a castle.

Palace or Large Castle

This is a larger version of a normal keep or castle. The term “palace” generally denotes a lower level of military security, as a place situated deep in the heart of a kingdom or empire, but a great deal more luxury.


The simplest of buildings, this wooden one-room construction provides bare shelter from the elements, a few sticks of furniture, and a single fireplace or cookstove.


This facility is an attractive building arranged to welcome customers, display wares, and store excess inventory. Most shops have a small living facility above them or in the back.

Temple, Large

A large temple is suited to the size of congregation one might find a large city. There are offices for clergy, a large worshiping room or hall, nooks and alcoves for quiet meditation, and decorations appropriate to the deity or pantheons patronized.

Temple, Small

A smaller version of the temple, this building usually has living facilities for a single priest and a congregating area for a couple of dozen worshipers at most.

Tower, Fortified

This tower is a small facility, often used to project military might into distance areas like mountain passes, places where conflicts are unlikely, but a military force or set of watchful eyes are important. Fortified towers are also a favorite with reclusive wizards and the like.

Trading Post

A trading post is a collection of shops, usually basic construction, and often erected near frontier areas. These facilities usually have some measure of security like a log palisade. Trading at these posts is usually lucrative, often exchanging basic goods for valuable frontier resources, including rare furs or minerals.

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