Vehicles improve characters’ speed of travel and their ability to transport cargo and equipment.
Proficiency with a land or water vehicle allows the operator to add her proficiency bonus to the vehicle’s AC and saving throws.
Use vehicle proficiency navigate rough terrain or waters (DC 10), assess a vehicle’s condition (DC 15), or perform a difficult maneuver making a tight turn at high speed (DC 20).

Drawn Vehicles

If you have proficiency with "vehicle (land)," you can add your proficiency bonus to any check you make to control drawn vehicles in difficult circumstances. The normal operation of drawn vehicles does not require ability checks.


Animals pulling a drawn vehicle can move weight up to five times their combined carrying capacity. Each vehicle on the chart notes parenthetically the minimum and maximum number of animals that can be harnessed to the vehicle. If more than one creature is harnessed, the animals must be harnessed in pairs. A single "lead" animal can be harnessed ahead of any pairs, its purpose to serve as a guide for the paired animals. (A lead animal does not contribute to the vehicle’s total carrying capacity.)

Other Beasts of Burden

Yaks, water buffalo, and similar cattle are often used as beasts of burden to draw vehicles, particularly in rural regions.

Waterborne Vehicles

If you have proficiency with “vehicle (water),” you can add your proficiency bonus to any check you make to control waterborne vehicles in difficult circum-stances. The normal operation of waterborne vehicles does not require ability checks, but anything other than a rowboat or keelboat also requires a crew of trained sailors to manage.


A ship needs skilled hirelings (crew) to operate. Up to half the crew (round down) can be unskilled, learning as they go. If more than half are unskilled, reduce the vehicle’s speed by half. Only skilled crew can operate siege weapons mounted on a ship.


This number assumes Small and Medium passengers sharing tight quarters. If the ship is outfitted with private cabins, the ship can accommodate only one-fifth of this number.

Damage Threshold

The ship has immunity to all damage unless it takes an amount equal to or greater than its damage threshold, in which case it takes damage as normal. Anything less is merely superficial, not reducing the ship’s hit points.


Repairing requires skilled hirelings or crew. For every 5 workers, 1 hit point of damage can be repaired each day at a 10 gp cost in materials. (The labor of any non-crew members must be paid separately.) Ships not berthed at proper facilities for such work can only be repaired at a maximum rate of 1 hit point per day.

Drawn Vehicles Chart

Item Cost Weight Item Cost Weight
Carriage (1-4) 100 gp 600 lb. Sled (1-2) 20 gp 300 lb.
Carriage, grand (1-8) 400 gp 950 lb. Sled, dog (1-16) 35 gp 50 lb.
Cart (1) 15 gp 200 lb. Sleigh (1-8) 30 gp 250 lb.
Cart, dog (1) 9 gp 60 lb. Trap (1) 55 gp 65 lb.
Chariot, heavy (2-6) 350 gp 180 lb. Wagon (1-4) 35 gp 400 lb.
Chariot, light (1-4) 250 gp 100 lb. Wagon, covered (1-4) 60 gp 550 lb.

Waterborne Vehicles Chart

Item Cost Speed Crew Passengers Cargo (tons) AC HP Damage Threshold
Canoe 50 gp 2 mph 1 6 - 11 50 -
Galley, palatial 350,000 gp 3 mph 120 300 30 15 800 20
Galley, ironclad 50,000 gp 3 mph 90 - 120 19 550 20
Galley, war 30,000 gp 4 mph 80 - 150 15 500 20
Keelboat, barge 3,000 gp 1 mph 1 6 0.5 15 100 10
Keelboat, cabined 4,500 gp 1 mph 1 10 1 15 110 10
Longship, karvi 6,000 gp 3 mph 16 60 15 15 120 15
Longship, snekkja 10,000 gp 3 mph 40 150 20 15 300 15
Longship, skeid 25,000 gp 3.5 mph 60 180 35 15 450 15
Raft 5 sp 0.5 mph 1 3 - 11 10 -
Rowboat 50 gp 1.5 mph 1 3 - 11 50 -
Sailing ship, caravel 10,000 gp 3 mph 20 20 100 15 300 15
Sailing ship, cog 8,000 gp 2 mph 15 15 60 15 220 15
Sailing ship, hulk 55,000 gp 1.5 mph 55 300 350 15 900 20
Warship, carrack 25,000 gp 2.5 mph 60 60 200 15 500 20
Warship, xebec 17,000 gp 3.5 mph 30 30 100 15 300 15

Ship Components

Not all ships are created equally. Players looking for a ship that is faster, tougher, or more agile might consider adding modifications to their vessels. Each of the following ship improvements must be planned, built, or installed (as appropriate) by a group of skilled shipwrights. Creation of anything larger than a keelboat must be done by a skilled team, not individuals employing the downtime crafting rules.

Additional Crew Quarters

This translates into more space for a ship’s sailors to sleep and eat. The ship may support more passengers than its base rating, but its cargo capacity is decreased. For each ton of cargo capacity removed, add 2 to the ship’s passenger rating.
Cost: 5% of base ship cost.

Armor Plating

By attaching metal plates to the ship, the vessel’s DT increases by 5. For every 10 hp of the vessel, remove any combination 2 from its passenger rating or 1 from its cargo rating. If there is insufficient capacity, this modification cannot be added. Armor plating slows the ship by ½ mph.
Cost: 30% of base ship cost.

Broad Rudder

A wide rudder makes a ship nimbler, granting advantage to some maneuvers.
Cost: 3% of the base ship cost.


A ramp or set of ramps that can be lowered from a ship to facilitate boarding. A corvus has hooks on its end to secure it fast over the other ship’s rail. The ramp has its own handrails, so sailors can safely rush into a boarding action. These bulky devices reduce a ship’s cargo capacity by 15 tons. If there is insufficient cargo capacity, this modification cannot be added.
Cost: 3% of the base ship cost.

Concealed Weapon Ports

Concealed weapon ports are carefully crafted and disguised; they can only be recognized on a successful Wisdom (Perception) check made within ½ of a mile.
Cost: 5% of the base ship cost to conceal all ports.

Extended Keel

The ship’s keel is longer than usual for a vessel of its type. The ship’s measurements from bow to stern are 10% longer than normal, though cargo capacity is not appreciably affected. The ship is more stable and, at the Dungeon Master’s discretion, provides advantage to certain maneuvers or ability checks that call upon water vehicles proficiency. This improvement must be installed at the time of the ship’s construction and cannot be added later.
Cost: 10% of base ship cost.


Some ships sport fanciful carvings on their bowsprits. This modification is strictly cosmetic. Players are encouraged to design their own custom figureheads such as dolphins, mermaids, and other creatures of myth. A proud figurehead adds 1 to crew loyalty while they are aboard (or within sight of) the ship.
Cost: 3% of the base ship cost.

Glass Bottom

The bottom of the ship is inset with a metal lattice supporting an array of windows. These permit the crew to gaze into the water below and around the vessel. The glass is thick enough and the individual panes small enough, that they don’t affect durability or performance. In a world with monstrous and magical perils, these windows help the crew see threats that come from below or identify terrain features immediately under the vessel. The limitation of these windows is the range of the crew’s vision into the water, which is often dark.
Cost: 25% of base ship cost.

Improved Sails

The ship’s rigging undergoes wholesale changes. Rigging configuration and careful engineering enable the sails to function more reliably. The ship’s captain or operator can attempt an Intelligence (water vehicles) check against a DC of 15 to prevent a non-combat mishap related to losing sails or rigging.
Cost: 6% of base ship cost.

Increased Cargo Capacity

The ship undergoes an efficient remodeling of its layout to provide more room for the ship’s stores. For every 2 persons that are removed from passenger capacity, add 1 ton to the cargo rating.
Cost: 5% of base ship cost.

Movable Deck

The features of the ship’s decks are designed to be moved to disguise the ship as an altogether different vessel. After pulling up dozens of bracing pins, the crew can slide the stern castle forward on hidden rails, rearrange the position of the masts, extend the gunwales, lower the poop deck, transfer the ship’s wheel, and make other cosmetic changes such as a new figurehead and different-colored sails. Identifying the ship at a distance based on its profile or appearance is impossible when the configuration is modified. A ship not currently in its natural formation reduces its speed by 1/2 mph.
Cost: 40% of base ship cost.

Narrow Hull

The ship has been intentionally designed with a slenderer hull, enabling it to slip through smaller spaces. The ship applies a +2 bonus on all opposed checks made for a chase an almost any scale, be those ability checks for navigator’s tools or for water vehicles proficiency. The ship’s beam (width) is decreased by 20%. Because of the reduced space needed for this shape, remove any combination 2 from its passenger rating or 1 from its cargo rating for every 10 hp of the vessel. If there is insufficient capacity, this modification cannot be added. This improvement must be installed at the time of the ship’s construction and cannot be added later.
Cost: 15% of base ship cost.


The ship bears a standard ram, usually sheathed in bronze or iron, mounted on its bow, usually at the waterline. With this upgrade, add 10 to the ship’s DT for ramming maneuvers.
Cost: 5% of base ship cost.


For protection during naval maneuvers, this ship has a raised “bumper” rail running down the front of its keel and around the front and sides of the hull just above the waterline. When resisting a ramming action, the operator of this vessel has advantage on the Intelligence (water vehicles) check. The vessel adds 5 to its DT when calculating other effects of being rammed. This feature cannot be added to a ship with a ram.
Cost: 20% of base ship cost.

Smuggling Compartments

The ship is modified so that gaps in its construction can serve as hidden cargo areas. This does not change a ship’s cargo capacity. A smuggling compartment can hold anything that fits within a 5-foot cubic space. A difficulty 20 Wisdom (Perception) check is required to locate smuggling compartments in a search of the ship.
Cost: 2% of base ship cost.

Sturdy Hull

The ship’s body has had additional supports and layers of wood added to it, making it thicker and more resilient. The ship’s base hit points are increased by 10%, but the ship’s speed is reduced by 1/2 mph. Cost:
10% of base ship cost.


Drawn Vehicles


An animal-drawn, wheeled conveyance designed for passenger use rather than utility. A carriage, or “coach,” is typically drawn by two or four horses, but can be pulled by a single beast. A driver usually sits on a front-mounted exterior bench. A carriage comfortably seats four passengers.

Grand Carriage

A larger version of a carriage, built with expensive materials and crafting designed to show wealth and status. A grand coach is typically drawn by four, six, or eight horses. A driver or two typically rides on a front-mounted bench and a set of hand- and foot-holds allow a pair of attendants or soldiers to ride on the back. A grand carriage comfortably seats six passengers.

Heavy Chariot

A heavy conveyance is drawn by two or four animals, usually horses. Up to three riders stand on a rolling platform, its short front and side walls sheltering them from the waist down.

Light Chariot

This light conveyance is drawn by a single animal, usually a horse. A single rider stands on the rolling platform, sheltered from the waist down by the chariot’s front and side walls.


A flat, narrow conveyance with a smooth bottom or borne on a pair of smooth runners. Sleds are designed to be drug across low-friction surfaces like snow. Sleds typically have no side or top and are used to carry cargo.

Dog Sled

This lightweight sled is designed for a pilot and no more than a single passenger. Its long, slender frame is typically drawn by a dozen sled dogs. Dog sleds usually have a single lead dog ahead of a series of paired sled dogs.


A sleigh is a sort of a sled, designed to carry passengers like a carriage. It usually has pronounced runners.


A trap is a two-wheeled passenger cart designed to carry one or two passengers. A trap’s large wheels, light construction, and high position make it ideal for speed.


A wagon is a, open-topped, four-wheeled vehicle typically drawn by two or four animals. It has an excellent cargo capacity and is employed in several utility roles.

Covered Wagon

The covered version of a wagon has walls and a roof. It is sometimes furnished amenities sufficient for use as a residence. Primitive covered wagons simply stretch a canvas cover over a set of raised bars, forming walls and a roof over what would otherwise be a large open-topped wagon.

Waterborne Vehicles


A lightweight passenger boat, sometimes carved from a single tree trunk. While fast and agile, a canoe’s hull is too narrow to be stable on the open sea in any conditions worse than calm waters.


This long, slender warship is propelled mainly by rowing, but it has masts and can travel under sail.


This grand galley is designed for pleasure cruising.


An ironclad galley is a slower-moving war galley that has sheets of metal to protect the hull from attacks. Despite the name, these armored sheets are made of copper alloys or other metals that can survive exposure to the sea, rather than iron.


A war galley has a ram and several mounting points for siege engines.

Barge Keelboat

A keelboat is a flat-bottomed vessel designed for river work in shallow water. The boat can be propelled by oars but is more often poled. Keelboats typically carry cargo, but they are often used as ferries for short crossings.

Cabined Keelboat

This large keelboat has a single-room cabin in its center. The cabin can provide shelter to the crew or to passengers.


This vessel is a long, low ship used for trade and commerce as well as warfare. The ship is propelled by a single, large sail or by oars. When used as a warship, the warriors typically mount their shields along the gunnels of both sides of the vessel to provide additional protection and to intimidate foes. The tall prows and aft ends of longships were often carved as the heads of dragons or other ferocious beasts.


This small, broad longship is typically used within sight of the shore. Its shallow draft makes it ideal for fishing and other types of in-shore work.


This longship is large enough for significant military operations, yet still small enough that the crew can haul it out of the water, dragging it onto a beach. This means makes snekkja ideal for raiding, landing in places without ports and disgorging large numbers of warriors.


The skeid is the largest version of the longship, too large for the crew to haul out of the water. Such vessels are used for long-range exploration and large-scale warfare.


Rafts are flat planes of floating material, square or rectangular in shape. They are typically crafted of logs using primitive construction methods. A raft can be built with a short mast to allow propulsion by sail. Otherwise, rafts are rowed with oars or poled for propulsion.


A small wooden boat fitted with four oars. Rowboats are used for fishing or utility work, in-shore travel, or as ship’s boats for larger watercraft.

Caravel Sailing Ship

A caravel is a small, highly maneuverable ship. It is ideal for in-shore work or fishing, but is also safe and capable travelling away from shore.

Cog Sailing Ship

Cogs are round, single-masted sailing ships. Primitive in design, cogs are still used for their reliability and ease of construction.

Hulk Sailing Ship

This massive, slow sailing ship can carry a staggering amount of cargo. Hulks have many uses based on their huge size, including being used as floating prisons during wartime.

Carrack Warship

An evolution of the cog, this wide, stable warship is very versatile. It is both durable in battle and can carry a large amount of cargo.

Xebec Warship

This small warship is an evolution of the war galley, more dependent on sails than oars, with larger masts and more complex sails.

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